The following articles are currently In Press and will be published in the next issue of
An Approach to the Pharmacotherapy of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
By Roland van Rensburg and Eric H. Decloedt
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare, idiosyncratic emergency associated with exposure to dopamine antagonists, commonly antipsychotic drugs. The typical clinical picture consists of altered consciousness, muscular rigidity, fever, and autonomic instability. While the condition has generally been well described, the pathophysiology is still poorly understood. The importance of this case report is to highlight the lack of robust evidence-based treatment for this emergency. We submit an approach to the pharmacotherapy of neuroleptic malignant syndrome based on the available evidence.
Akathisia Induced by Abrupt Withdrawal of Risperidone: A Case Report
By Gangaparameswari Soundarrajan, Bharti Chogtu Magazine, Vybhav Krishna, Avinash Kamath G, and Manisha murugesan
Akathisia is a common movement disorder that occurs as a consequence of antipsychotic therapy. However, its occurrence secondary to risperidone withdrawal has been reported rarely. Reporting of such rare adverse event gains profound importance because changing the antipsychotics is very common in long term management of affective disorders. Here, we report a 17-year-old female who on withdrawal of risperidone developed akathisia. Further, we also discuss already reported cases in literature in relation to the current case.
Exercise as a Treatment for Schizophrenia: a Review
By Steven J. Girdler, Jamie E. Confino and Mary E. Woesner
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment in areas of attention, working memory, and executive functioning. Although no clear etiology of schizophrenia has been discovered, many factors have been identified that contribute to the development of the disease, such as neurotransmitter alterations, decreased synaptic plasticity, and diminished hippocampal volume. Historically, antipsychotic medications have targeted biochemical alterations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia but have been ineffective in alleviating cognitive and hippocampal deficits. Other modalities, such as exercise therapy, have been proposed as adjuvant or primary therapy options. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve positive and negative symptoms, quality of life, cognition, and hippocampal plasticity, and to increase hippocampal volume in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. This article will briefly review the clinical signs, symptoms and proposed etiologies of schizophrenia, and describe the current understanding of exercise programs as an effective treatment in patients with the disease.