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Psychotropics and Related Topics From Sixteen Years of Peer-Review Articles

NOTE FOR READERS: While most pharmacologic agents are called out by name, some articles may be overviews of entire classes of agents. For example, under sections such as ANTIDEPRESSANTS (not specified), the reader would find the following article: Rational Antidepressant Selection: Applying Evidence-Based Medicine to Complex Real-World Patients. 

Likewise, certain pharmacologic advances can be rationalized only in the context of the disease itself. Among drug categories, you will find ‘non specified’ sections on Epidemiology, Bipolar, and Sleep Disturbances, to name just a few. Rather than omit entire categories of research because they did not correspond to a strict listing of drug names, we chose to deviate in certain instances for the sake of completeness. We hope this does not contribute to any confusion.

All articles prefaced with the    logo are indexed on PubMed.com under Psychopharmacol Bull.
— Sincerely, The Editors

DISCLAIMER: Although every effort has been made to ensure that drug information is presented accurately in all Medworks’ publications, the ultimate responsibility rests with the prescribing physician. Neither the publisher, nor the authors can be held responsible for errors or for any consequences arising from the use of information contained herein. Readers are strongly urged to consult additional relevant primary literature. No claims or endorsements are made for any drug or compound currently under clinical investigation.



 - Agomelatine for Depression in Schizophrenia: A Case-Series 


 - The Speed of Onset of Action of Alprazolam-XR Compared to Alprazolam-CT in Panic Disorder

Alternative Medicine

 - Determinants of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by Patients with Bipolar Disorder 


 - Amisulpride for Clozapine Induced Sialorrhea


 - Citalopram Versus Amitriptyline in Elderly Depressed Patients with or without Mild Cognitive Dysfunction: A Danish Multicentre Trial in General Practice 

Anticonvulsants (not specified)
 - Evidence-Based Mental Health Use of Anticonvulsants During Pregnancy

 - Pharmacokinetics of Mood Stabilizers and New Anticonvulsants 

Innovative Treatment Strategies With Anticonvulsants: A Focus On Bipolar Disorder 

Antidepressants (not specified)

 - Rational Antidepressant Selection: Applying Evidence-Based Medicine to Complex Real-World Patients

 - Comparing The Methods Used To Compare Antidepressants 

 - A Survey of Prescribing Preferences in the Treatment of Refractory Depression: Recent Trends 

Great Expectations In Stereochemistry: Focus On Antidepressants 

A Discussion On The Methodologies Used To Evaluate Antidepressants 


 - Atomoxetine Induced Hypothermia: A Case Report 

Antipsychotics (not specified)

 - Lack of Efficacy of Antipsychotics on Premenstrual Psychosis: A Case Report

 - Antipsychotic Induced Symptomatic Hyperprolactinemia: Are Dopamine Agonists Safe? 

 - Metabolic Syndrome with Different Antipsychotics: A Multicentre Cross-Sectional Study 

 - The Revised Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: Evidence from Pharmacological MRI Studies with Atypical Antipsychotic Medication 

 - Antipsychotic Medications and Sudden Cardiac Death 

 - Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual Dysfunction 

 - Sexual Side Effects Associated With Conventional and Atypical Antipsychotics 

 - Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antipsychotics 


 - Criteria for Defining Symptomatic and Sustained Remission in Bipolar I Disorder: a Post-Hoc Analysis of a 26-Week Aripiprazole Study (Study CN138-010) 

 - An Open-Label Assessment of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of PTSD 

 - Efficacy of High-Dose Aripiprazole for Treatment-Resistant Schizoaffective Disorder: A Case Report

 - Prospective Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Aripiprazole as a Monotherapy in Patients with Severe Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Open Trial 


 - An Open Label Pilot Study Of Adjunctive Asenapine For The Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

 - Asenapine in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Clinical Trial Design and Rationale

Atypical Antipsychotics (not specified)

 - Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs and Diabetes Mellitus in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Database: A Systematic Bayesian Signal Detection Analysis 

 - Off-Label Second Generation Antipsychotics for Impulse Regulation Disorders: A Review 

 - Predicting Antipsychotic Use in Children 

 - Drug–Drug Interactions Associated with Second-Generation Antipsychotics: Considerations for Clinicians and Patients 

 - Atypical Antipsychotics and Pituitary Neoplasms in the WHO Database 

 - Mood Stabilizers and Atypical Antipsychotics: Bimodal Treatments for Bipolar Disorder 

 - Drug Development for Anxiety Disorders: New Roles for Atypical Antipsychotics 

 - Advancing the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: New Findings and Novel Uses for Atypical Antipsychotics

 - Disturbed Glucose Metabolism Among Patients Taking Olanzapine and Typical Antipsychotics 

 - Sexual Side Effects Associated With Conventional and Atypical Antipsychotics

Human And Economic Costs Of Schizophrenia: A Case Study Of The Impact Of Newer Antipsychotics 

Autism Spectrum Disorder(s) (not specified)

 - Treatment Of Autism Spectrum Disorder In Children And Adolescents

 - Does Risperidone Improve Hyperacusia in Children with Autism? 


Benzodiazepines (not specified)

 - A Major Change of Prescribing Pattern in Absence of Adequate Evidence: Benzodiazepines Versus Newer Antidepressants in Anxiety Disorders 

 - Pharmacokinetically Induced Benzodiazepine Withdrawal 

Bipolar Disorders (not specified)

 - Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder and a Recent Substance Use Disorder: A 12-week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study 

 - Why Do Persons with Bipolar Disorder Stop Their Medication?

 - Bipolar-I Patient Characteristics Associated with Differences in Antimanic Medication Prescribing

 - Frequency of Stimulant Treatment and of Stimulant-Associated Mania/Hypomania in Bipolar Disorder Patients

 - Correlates of Functioning in Bipolar Disorder 

 - Bipolar-I Depression Outpatient Treatment Quality and Costs in Usual Care Practice 

 - Patterns of Pharmacotherapy and Treatment Response in Elderly Adults with Bipolar Disorder

 - Concordance with Treatment Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Data from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder 

 - Mood Stabilizers and Atypical Antipsychotics: Bimodal Treatments for Bipolar Disorder 

 - New Approaches to Modeling Bipolar Disorder 

 - Management of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents 

 - An Evidence-Based Review of Psychosocial Treatments for Bipolar Disorder 

 - Genetics Of Bipolar Disorder 

Bipolar Affective Disorder: Does Psychosocial Treatment Add To The Efficacy Of Drug Therapy?

The Neurobiology Of Bipolar Disorder 

Expert Consensus Guidelines For The Medication Treatment Of Bipolar Disorder: A New Treatment Tool

A Test For Bipolar Disorder: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire 

STEP- BD—A Design For Evaluating Effectiveness Of Treatment For Bipolar Disorder

The TEN Interview: Kay Redfield Jamison, PhD 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder And Pediatric-Onset Bipolar Disorder 


 - Monoarthritis Induced by Bupropion Hydrochloride

 - Bupropion Sustained Release for Panic Disorder 

 - Effect of Bupropion SR on Specific Symptom Clusters of Depression: Analysis of the 31-Item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 



 - A Primer on Caffeine Pharmacology and Its Drug Interactions in Clinical Psychopharmacology


 - Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Adolescent Cannabis Use: MRI Evidence for Structural Hyperconnectivity?

 - Cessation of Cannabis Use by Patients with Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Related Disorders


 - Citalopram Versus Amitriptyline in Elderly Depressed Patients with or without Mild Cognitive Dysfunction: A Danish Multicentre Trial in General Practice

 - Can Physiologic Assessment and Side Effects Tease Out Differences in PTSD Trials? A Double-Blind Comparison of Citalopram, Sertraline, and Placebo

 - Overview of the Safety of Citalopram

 - Citalopram for the Treatment of Adolescent Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Study

Efficacy Comparison Of Escitalopram And Citalopram In The Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder: Pooled Analysis Of Placebo-Controlled Trials

Clinical Trials (standards & strategies)

 - Rater Training for a Multi-Site, International Clinical Trial: What Mood Symptoms may be most Difficult to Rate?

 - Which Rating Scales are Regarded as ‘The Standard’ in Clinical Trials for Schizophrenia? A Critical Review

 - Statistical Strategies for Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials to Detect Differential Onset of Action

 - Assessment of Anxiety in Clinical Trials with Depressed Patients Using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale

 - The Sex Effects Scale: Pilot Validation in a Healthy Population

 - Exercise for Depression: Efficacy, Safety and Clinical Trial Implications

 - Psychometric Evaluation of a Patient-Rated Troubling Symptom Scale for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Clinical Trials

 - Addressing Methodological Issues in Studying Antidepressant Onset Efficacy Using Prespecified Sensitivity Analyses

 - Early Symptom Change Prediction of Remission in Depression Treatment

 - Placebo Response in Depression: A Perspective for Clinical Practice

 - Psychometric Evaluation of a Patient-Rated Troubling Symptom Scale for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Clinical Trials

 - Developing and Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies Using Substance-Induced Psychosis as an Example.

 - Simple Options for Improving Signal Detection in Antidepressant Clinical Trials

 - Reliability and Validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in Schizophrenia Patients

 - What Is a Significant Response in Drug Studies of Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Statistical Significance Is Necessary, But Is It Sufficient?

 - An Intent-to-Treat Method for Enhancing Analysis of Clinical Trials with Rescue Medication: A Mixed-Model Approach

 - The Duke Somatic Treatment Algorithm for Geriatric Depression (STAGED) Approach

 - Informant-Rated Cognitive Symptoms in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia

 - Clinical Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease

Placebo-Controlled Trials In Psychiatric Research: An Ethical Perspective

Ethics And Economics In Placebo-Controlled Trials Of New Drugs For Mood Disorders

Reconsidering Outcomes In Alzheimer Disease Clinical Trials


 - Differences in Efficacy on Substance Abuse between Risperidone and Clozapine Supports the Importance of Differential Modulation of Dopaminergic Neurotransmission

 - Amisulpride for Clozapine Induced Sialorrhea

 - Clinical Predictors of Response to Clozapine in Patients with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia

 - Suicidal Obsessions as Dose Dependent Side-Effect of Clozapine

 - Complete Resolution of Clozapine-Induced Sialorrhea with Low Dose Trihexyphenidyl

 - Amisulpride for Clozapine Induced Sialorrhea

 - Factors Associated with Response to Clozapine in Schizophrenia: A Review

 - Switching antipsychotics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, crossover, abrupt switch, clozapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone


 - Cocaine is a Major Risk Factor for Antipsychotic Induced Akathisia, Parkinsonism and Dyskinesia.

 - Acute Cortisol Administration Triggers Craving in Individuals with Cocaine Dependence


 - Acute Cortisol Administration Triggers Craving in Individuals with Cocaine Dependence


DDTC (a Metabolite of Disulfiram)

 - DDTC, a Metabolite of Disulfiram, Reduces the Stimulating Effect on Ethanol’s Locomotor Activity in Mice 


 - Analysis Of Symptoms In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Treated With Desvenlafaxine Or Placebo

 - Desvenlafaxine and Venlafaxine Exert Minimal In Vitro Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein Activities


 - Treatment Resistant Depression With Loss Of Antidepressant Response: Rapid—Acting Antidepressant Action Of Dextromethorphan, A Possible Treatment Bridging Molecule. 


 - Donepezil for Cognitive Decline Following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Drug Interactions (not specified)

 - Clinical Significance of Drug Binding, Protein Binding, and Binding Displacement Drug Interactions

 - Psychoactive Drug Interactions With Pharmacotherapy for Diabetes 

 - Emerging Significance of P-glycoprotein in Understanding Drug Disposition and Drug Interactions in Psychopharmacology 

 - Emerging Role of Drug Interaction Studies in Drug Development:The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown

 - Charleston Antidepressant Drug Interactions Surveillance Program (CADISP) 

 - The Emerging Recognition of Herb-Drug Interactions With a Focus on St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum)

 - An Explanation of the Second-Dose Effect in Pharmacokinetics and Its Meaning for Clinical Psychopharmacology 

Dopamine D4 Receptors: Neuropsychiatric Implications 

Psychotropic Drug Interactions : A Doctor’s Guide


 - Duloxetine in Military Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

 - Switching to Duloxetine Remits Ziprasidone – Associated Urinary Incontinence and Improves Neuropsychiatric Behavior in Dementia: Possible Relationship of Incontinence to 5HT2 Receptor Blockade.

 - Duloxetine for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder 



 - Effects Of Discontinuation Of Paliperidone Long-Acting Injectable After Switching From Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable Switching

 - Efficacy and Safety of Paliperidone Extended Release 1.5 mg/day—A Double-blind, Placebo- and Active-Controlled, Study in the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia

 - Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment In Outpatient Care Setting: A Naturalistic Study

Panic Disorder (not specified)

 - Management of Treatment-Refractory Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder During Pregnancy


 - Paroxetine—The Antidepressant From Hell? Probably Not, But Caution Required

 - Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Short-Term Paroxetine Treatment

 - Brief Report: Paroxetine in Younger and Adult Individuals at High Risk for Suicide

 - A Randomized Controlled Trial of Paroxetine for Noncardiac Chest Pain

 - Neuropharmacology of Paroxetine

 - In Vivo Neuroimaging Correlates of the Efficacy of Paroxetine in the Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

 - Pharmacokinetics, Drug Interactions, and Tolerability of Paroxetine and Paroxetine CR

 - Paroxetine Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

 - Treatment of Panic Disorder: Focus on Paroxetine

 - Paroxetine Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

 - Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Impact of Paroxetine

 - Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Implications of the Efficacy of an SSRI, Paroxetine

 - Advances in Recognition and Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: A 10-Year Retrospective

 - Paroxetine Use in Medically Ill Patients

 - Paroxetine Treatment of Depression in Late Life

 - Paroxetine Treatment of Mood Disorders in Women: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and Hot Flashes

 - Clinical Management of Perinatal Depression: Focus on Paroxetine

 - Paroxetine Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

 - Efficacy and Tolerability of Controlled-Release Paroxetine

Placebo (not specified)

 - Suicide Risk Analysis Among Patients Assigned to Psychotropics and Placebo

 - Can Physiologic Assessment and Side Effects Tease Out Differences in PTSD Trials? A Double-Blind Comparison of Citalopram, Sertraline, and Placebo


 - Drug Dependence Involving Prednisone:Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

Psychopharmacology (not specified)

 - Evidence-Based Decision-Making in Psychopharmacology

 - An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to Combined Treatment for ADHD in Children and Adolescents

 - The Psychopharmacology of Fibromyalgia: A Drug Development Perspective

 - Special Issues in the Psychopharmacological Management of Hispanic Americans

Pharmacologic Management Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Psychotherapy (not specified)

 - REVAMP - Research Evaluating the Value of Augmenting Medication with Psychotherapy: Rationale and Design

 - Continuation Treatment of Chronic Depression: A Comparison of Nefazodone, Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, and Their Combination

Efficacy And Cost-Effectiveness Of Group Psychotherapy For Patients With Cancer

Movement Toward Evidence-Based Psychotherapies


Schizophrenia (not specified)

 - Signal Detection and Placebo Response in Schizophrenia: Parallels with Depression 

 - Paroxysmal Perceptual Alteration: Drug-Induced Phenomenon or Schizophrenic Psychopathology? 

 - Financial Incentives to Improve Adherence to Medication in Five Patients with Schizophrenia in The Netherlands

 - Treatment Target in Schizophrenia: A Critical Review and a Clinical Suggestion 

 - The Revised Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: Evidence from Pharmacological MRI Studies with Atypical Antipsychotic Medication

 - Do Antipsychotic Drugs Influence Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenia?

 - Neurodevelopmental Models of Schizophrenia: Pathophysiologic Synthesis and Directions for Intervention Research 

Pharmacologic Treatment Of Schizophrenia

Gender And Schizophrenia 

Genetics Of Schizophrenia: Recent Advances 

Neuropsychiatric Update: Neuroimaging Schizophrenia

Ethical Issues In Schizophrenia: Considerations For Treatment And Research


 - Commentary on the Treatment Effects of Selegiline Transdermal System on Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled, Efficacy Trials 


 - Can Physiologic Assessment and Side Effects Tease Out Differences in PTSD Trials? A Double-Blind Comparison of Citalopram, Sertraline, and Placebo

Sleep Disorders (not specified)

Sleep Disorders Centers—Function, Structure, And Economics

Shiftwork, Circadian Disruption, And Consequences 

Recent Advances In The Understanding And Treatment Of Narcolepsy

Comorbidity Of Insomnia With Medical And Psychiatric Disorders

SSRIs/SNRIs (not specified)

 - Are SNRIs More Effective than SSRIs? A Review of the Current State of the Controversy 

 - A Pilot Study of the Pharmacodynamic Impact of SSRI Drug Selection and Beta-1 Receptor Genotype (ADRB1) on Cardiac Vital Signs in Depressed Patients: A Novel Pharmacogenetic Approach 

 - A Model to Explain the Therapeutic Effects of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: The Role of 5-HT2 Receptors

 - Can Serotonin and Fluoxetine Levels in Plasma and Platelets Predict Clinical Response in Depression? 

 - Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Pharmacoeconomic Cost-Effective Modeling In A University Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic 

St. John’s Wort

 - The Emerging Recognition of Herb-Drug Interactions With a Focus on St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum)

Stimulants (not specified)

 - Frequency of Stimulant Treatment and of Stimulant-Associated Mania/Hypomania in Bipolar Disorder Patients 

 - Photophobia and Methylphenidate 

 - Management of Treatment Refractory Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents 

 - Treatment Of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results Of A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Crossover Study Of Extended-Release Dexmethylphenidate And DL - Methylphenidate And Placebo In A Laboratory Classroom Setting

Suicide Prevention (not specified)

Editor's Letter: Suicide

The Economic Burden of Suicide In The United States 

Acute Vs Chronic Risk Factors For Suicide— Treatment Implications